By Anjani Chadha
1. 2015 earthquake, Nepal
The 2015 Nepal earthquake with a magnitude of 8.2 killed nearly 9000 people, leaving almost 3.5 million people homeless. The Nepalese army launched the Operation Sankat Mochan to complete the rescue program.
Nepal received about $4 billion from International donors to put into effect the re-development process. Though, the commitment seen was beyond expectations yet political dysfunction in the country slowed down the rebuilding process. Following a supply crisis and delays in fund sanctions, the rebuilding process has been relatively slow.By 2017, as reported by Fox News the country has been able to rebuild about 22,000 homes which is only 3.5 percent of the number counted for reconstruction.
2. 2013 Uttrakhand floods, India
The 2013 Uttrakhand tragedy affected almost 4,500 villages, killing almost 6000 people. While the central government announced an aid package of Rs 10 billion, Uttrakhand also received financial assistance from multiple States and other government sources. The rebuilding process on the other hand also involved multiple projects and programmes.
The Uttrakhand Disaster Recovery Project was launched in October 2013. By 2014, a World Bank funded program was launched to empower the families which lost their homes during the tragedy. By 2017, Uttrakhand cabinet signed an agreement with top business houses to rebuild Kedarpuri which was completely devastated in the flash floods.
3. 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami, Japan
An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 shook the coast of Japan in March 2011 triggering a tsunami which eventually lead to a human catastrophe leading to about 16000 deaths. The tsunami further caused nuclear accidents as well worsening the situation.
Putting into effect the rebuilding process, the parliament announced more than 50 billion yen for the reconstruction process. But a Reuters review back in 2014 revealed that 60 percent of the allocated amount was remained in bank deposits signaling loopholes in implementation of the re-development schemes. Eventually in 2015, Shinzo Abe vowed a new 5-year plan to speed the rebuilding process since much was required to be done in fields of employment and permanent housing.
4. 2015 Earthquake, Afghanistan
Afghanistan witnessed a 7.5 magnitude earthquake in 2015 killing about 115 people in Afghanistan. The aftershock swarm increased the toll to 1770 injured people with further damage to 109,123 buildings.
Apart from rescue operations, commitment from the side of United Nations General Assembly helped in the rebuilding of the nation to a great extent. On a surprising note, Afghanistan in spite of prevalent political instability did not request any international assistance.
5. 2007 earthquake, Solomon island
Solomon Islands earthquake took place in 2007, with a magnitude of 8.1. The earthquake triggered a tsunami which affected livelihoods on the island. In response to the condition, many countries such as Australia, New Zealand , France, Taiwan , United States allocated funds to trigger the rebuilding process. Various International organizations like Red Cross, UNICEF contributed both financially and on humanitarian grounds to ease the redevelopment process. The national government also reallocated islanders in review of long term rehabilitation.
6. 2009 earthquake in Indonesia
The coast of Sumatra in Indonesia was struck by an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 in September, 2009, killing 1,115 people and leaving more than 2000 people injured. Houses, hotels and other settlements were severely destroyed displacing about 1,250,000 families.
The Indonesian authorities announced several relief programmes but it was only with the emergency aid by almost 24 countries that Indonesia was able to put its people out of the whammy of the disaster. Various organizations like UNICEF, World Vision, Mercy Corps came together to pitch in efforts for both assessment of the disaster as well as for humanitarian care and rebuilding.
There were, however, reports that even in 2015 over 1900 families were not resettled due to delays in government programmes.
7. 2017 floods in China
2017 China floods displaced more than 14 million people , inundating about 1.05.710 sq ft of agricultural area. The country witnessed an economic loss of roughly 2.9 billion Yuan.
Under the nation’s rebuilding process, the Hong Kong Red Cross has have been monitoring the situation and is majorly catering to provide humanitarian assistance to the affected victims. Along withe the government, the necessary rescue operations were put into affect by the Red Cross Society of China. The Chinese government distributed about 700 million yuan as emergency aid to various provinces.
8. 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand
The ‘2016 Kaikoura earthquake’ occurred in South Island of New Zealand triggering a Tsunami as well. When the talks of reconstruction surfaced, John Key, the then prime minister stated that the process will cost billions of dollars. The overall cost of rebuilding the State Highway to Kikoura itself costed $1 billion. The rebuilding of the highway had to be initiated soon in order to restore access to Kaikoura. Emergency legislations were also passed in order to ensure timely repairs.
9. 1976 Tangshan earthquake, China
The 1976 Tangshan earthquake saw death of about 255000 people and further injured about 7,00,000. The earthquake was felt up to 1,100 km. the aftermath of the earthquake involved political repercussions leading to a significant cultural revolution in China.
Following the magnitude of the disaster, Chinese government initiated efforts to redevelop the living arrangements for people and restoration of business networks and stations was actively done. Subsequent measures to restore production and strengthen public security by way of proper propagation were also undertaken.
10. 1970 Bhola cyclone, Bangladesh
The Bhola cyclone which struck Bangladesh (then, East Pakistan) is one of the deadliest cyclone ever recorded which killed almost 5,00,000 people further incurring a loss of $86.4 million.
As for the relief measures, the government allocated about $116 million. The rebuilding process was further completed with United States help when they allocated $10 million to aid the process. Aids from Singapore,Japan, Canada also flushed in to cater to the issues pertaining to smallpox vaccination. Many of Bangladesh’s NGOs also trace their roots to reconstruction work done during the Bhola cyclone.